Sandra Bland and Smoking While Black (continued...)

As you may recall, last July a White Texas state trooper pulled over Sandra Bland, a Black woman, on bogus grounds and became enraged when she refused to stop smoking a cigarette (“Sandra Bland and Smoking While Black”).  Based on video evidence of the encounter, the trooper was indicted this week on charges of perjury, a misdemeanor.  The county judge still needs to issue a warrant for the officer’s arrest so the case can proceed through the judicial system.

Within three days of her arrest, Sandra Bland sadly and unnecessarily died on July 13 in her Texas jail cell from a reported “suicide.”  A grand jury investigating her jailhouse death failed to bring indictments against any of the jailers.  This was despite evidence that the jailers clearly did not follow required basic protocol for a detainee about whom they had health concerns.

During just the past decade an estimated 4,200 people in Texas have died while in police custody or incarcerated.  At the national level no accurate governmental database currently exists to document how many people of color die in police custody.  This stems in part by lack of enforcement of iterations of the ‘‘Death in Custody Reporting Act.”  This Congressional bill has seen a number of revisions over the years but essentially depends on the states to accurately collect data and report it to the Feds.  This somewhat voluntary system has yet to yield valid information.

The U.S. Department of Justice attempts to compile data just on numbers of people who die while in the custody of local jails or state prisons, not necessarily those who die due to the actions of police.  In 2012, for example, the DOJ reported that 4,309 inmates died across the U.S. while imprisoned.  Between 2000 & 2012 local jails alone averaged 900-1,000 inmate deaths annually.

The Black Lives Matter social justice movement and continuing national attention to racial injustices has put the spotlight on the cozy relationship between county prosecutors and local police.  Without this movement’s pressure it is unlikely that this rural county in Texas with a known history of racism would have bothered to investigate any aspect of Bland’s arrest and death.  Only now is the nation attending to its colonial legacy: According to the 1705 Virginia Slave code, the death of a Black person by a White would be as if it “had never happened.”  In the end, these charges against the state trooper in the case of Sandra Bland are a relative judicial slap on the hand if carried out to the maximum in comparison to the actual criminality of the officer in arresting Bland in the first place.

"Statement Concerning the Climate of Political Intolerance"

[Note:  Look forward to learning how other colleges, governing bodies, and community groups are responding...MV]

A voice vote was taken on the statement below at the December 9, 2015, meeting of the Evergreen State College Faculty and passed by overwhelming yes vote with one abstention.

We, members of the faculty at The Evergreen State College, are deeply troubled by the extreme intolerance of the present political scene in the United States. Particularly worrisome are some of the demagogic, hateful and openly racist statements emerging from the field of Presidential candidates, echoed by members of Congress, governors, and other officials. In recent months we have seen rhetorical slanders against Mexican immigrants, Muslims, refugees, Black Lives Matter activists, women, and even people with disabilities.

Recent attacks in Paris prompted discussion of closing mosques, mass surveillance, the creation of databases of refugees--and even a ban on all Muslim immigration to the US.  Many governors demanded a ban on all immigration of Syrian refugees to the United States. One presidential candidate compared them to “rabid dogs.” Another has proposed that we kill the families of terrorists. Such inflammatory comments, appealing to deep-seated prejudice and fear, can only serve to degrade public discourse, weaken the defense of cherished civil liberties, and prepare the ground for authoritarianism and violence.

To combat these troubling developments, as part of our stated mission to further social justice, we at The Evergreen State College:

  1. Applaud the statement by Governor Jay Inslee welcoming Syrian refugees to the State of Washington. We further encourage an increase in the proposed number of those refugees allowed into the United States during this period of humanitarian crisis.
  2. Encourage, to the extent possible, our own Evergreen State College to be a part of the process of resettlement of these immigrants. We also endorse tuition support and an expedited admissions process to allow Syrian students to attend Evergreen.
  3. Condemn the wholesale scapegoating of members of the Islamic faith, and those of Middle Eastern ethnicity, because of the reprehensible acts of a few. We denounce the exploitation of public fears by political figures seeking to build support at the expense of whole groups of innocent people.
  4. Condemn the abusive political rhetoric against African Americans, Black Lives Matter activists, undocumented Mexican and other immigrants, people with disabilities, women, and others. We deplore this uncivil and intolerant discourse, and encourage our community members to publicly defend the rights and liberties of those under attack.
  5. Promote an ethics of welcome towards all refugees, recognizing their right to human dignity. We are also mindful that climate change, war, and economic crises will continue to produce migrations for a long time to come.

We welcome and echo this November 21 statement issued by the American Academy of Religion, the world’s largest scholarly society devoted to the critical study of religion:

The American Academy of Religion is deeply troubled by the rising anti-Muslim rhetoric in the United States and around the world. Hate speech and intemperate political discourse aimed at Muslims and other religious groups are opposed to the values of our learned society and to the most cherished commitments of American civic culture. We call on our members, other scholars of religion, and all Americans, to reject that divisive and dangerous speech and to reaffirm our shared commitment to a free and open society where all residents’ rights are recognized and protected.

“Black Women Matter”

            Last week an Oklahoma City police officer was found guilty of sexually assaulting 13 Black women while he was on the job.  The officer was finally brought to tears when the jury recommended 263 years in prison.  Outside the courtroom, supporters of the women, as the New York Times put it, “updated an evocative phrase by emphasizing ‘Black women matter’.”  Nevertheless, the all-White jury – yes, ALL, in a county that is 20% Black – acquitted the officer on 18 counts due to the questioning of the credibility of some of this rapist’s victims.

This case reflects a deep, racist history from the colonial era to the U.S. founding.   For example, Thomas Jefferson made clear the value of slave women as wealth.  In regards to how he valued his Black female slaves, he wrote, “I consider the labor of a breeding woman as no object” – that is, what her work or labor produced was not all that important.  Then Jefferson goes on to state what he did find important: “that a child raised every 2 years of more profit than the crop of the best laboring man.”  A prominent author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson clearly saw how economically valuable slaves and their offspring were to White property expansion.

Black women during the colonial era through much of the 20th century were cast by White dominant narratives as promiscuous and inviting rape, when in fact it is the legacy of White male slave owners who raped Black women with impunity. And, of course, such violations of Black women would never have had a day in court, especially with a White jury – which in the Oklahoma City case is a noteworthy shift in an all-White jury convicting a White police officer of any crime against people of color at all, let alone against Black women.

Into the 20th century we find President Woodrow Wilson praising the Ku Klux Klan, a historical lesson that became publicly debated last month in protests at Princeton University where Wilson had served as president.  Wilson was enthusiastic about his old college buddy Thomas Dixon having his 1905 novel The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan made into the 1915 silent film The Birth of a Nation.  Basically the book and movie as works of fiction presented freed male slaves as criminals who preyed on White women.  This narrative contrasts with the actual historical actions of White males, especially those associated with the planter class, who raped and impregnated Black women and murdered Black males as if it had never happened.

Quoted in The Birth of a Nation is President Wilson who rationalized that KKK “began to attempt by intimidation what they were not allowed to attempt by the ballot or by any ordered course of public action.”  Projected in this film was the president’s quote that “white men were roused by the mere instinct of self-preservation…until at last there had sprung into existence a great Ku Klux Klan, a veritable empire of the South, to protect the Southern country.” Wilson arranged for The Birth of a Nation to be the first film shown in the White House.  In that film the KKK marches proudly past the White House.

At the height of the mid-1960s “War on Poverty,” Daniel Moynihan, as a U.S. Labor Department employee – and eventual Harvard professor, member of Congress, and U.S. ambassador – penned The Negro Family: The Case for National Action.  According to Moynihan, the problem of poverty for millions of African Americans was not White racism that led to discrimination in housing and jobs – but Black women!  Using a disease metaphor, Moynihan contended that a cultural feature,  a “family pathology,” was a primary cause of intergenerational poverty.  The identified source of the continuing culture of poverty was the Black female as head of household because “a matriarchal structure…seriously retards the progress of the group as a whole, and imposes a crushing burden on the Negro male.” 

The trope of the Black female parent as a cause of social problems would later become prominent in President Reagan’s 1980s racializing discourse of mythic welfare queens.  By our current decade this skewed narrative would expand into a “cultural commonsense created by rightwing race-baiting: lazy nonwhites abuse welfare, while hardworking whites pay for it,” according to Ian Haney López in his brilliant book Dog Whistle Politics: How Coded Racial Appeals Have Reinvented Racism and Wrecked the Middle Class.

            Meanwhile, the incarceration rate of Black women has been rising significantly during the past 20 years.  Women are currently incarcerated at a rate of 1 out of every 56 women, but for Black women chances of incarceration are 1 in 19 in their lifetime, a ratio nearly 3 times that of white women.  Added to all of this, incarceration is where women experience higher rates of sexual violence than men.

            Law professor Kimberlé Crenshaw and her colleagues note that historically “Black female narratives were rendered partial, unrecognizable, something apart from the standard claims of race discrimination or gender discrimination” – a critically important point in calling continued attention to “Black Women Matter.”

Police Chiefs Address a Broken System

            It’s been 15 months since unarmed African American adolescent Michael Brown was killed by White Ferguson, Missouri, police officer Darren Wilson and the Lost Voices of Ferguson and the Black Lives Matter social justice movement forced national attention on America’s broken criminal justice system.  Black Lives Matter continues to inspire numerous long-overdue social justice debates over public safety and criminal justice.   In Are Prisons Obsolete? (2003), Angela Davis cautioned about the rhetoric of “reform”:

“Debates about strategies of decarceration, which should be the focal point of our conversations on the prison crisis, tend to be marginalized when reform takes the center stage.”

Professor Davis goes on to ask,

“How can we take seriously strategies of restorative rather than exclusively punitive justice?”

             In light of Davis’s comments, the October 20th announcement by the police chiefs of major urban cities urging a reduction in incarcerations and arrests definitely got my attention.  Historically, police organizations have vehemently opposed such policies.  Speaking as co-chair of the national Law Enforcement Leaders to Reduce Crime and Incarceration, Chicago Police Chief Garry F. McCarthy reflectively shared,

“After all the years I’ve been doing this work, I ask myself, ‘What is a crime, and what does the community want?’  When we’re arresting people for low-level offenses — narcotics — I’m not sure we’re achieving what we’ve set out to do. The system of criminal justice is not supporting what the community wants.”

Like a post-structuralist, McCarthy found himself deconstructing the concept of crime and public safety.  McCarthy’s reflection on “what is a crime?” captures what is understated in Diversity and Education:

“Worldviews differ on interpretations of what constitutes a crime and a just punishment.”

             In their statement the police chiefs acknowledged the problem of arrests and incarceration of people who clearly need access to mental health services – rather than simply being thrown into jails and prisons.  Yet, these police leaders left unanswered as to how funding would shift from incarceration to mental health services.  Since the era of Presidents Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton, the U.S. has continued to reduce social services for the mentally ill.  Instead, we’ve witnessed a growth of mentally-challenged individuals being homeless or incarcerated. 

              Besides the lack of publically-funded mental health services to meet the reform aim of McCarthy and his organization, the growth of what Davis named as the prison-industrial complex must be addressed politically.  In essence, the prison-industrial complex is where individuals profit off of incarceration.  While McCarthy and the other police chiefs addressed the exorbitant cost to the public of incarceration, they are silent on the huge political clout that the for-profit prison industry holds over politicians in state and federal legislatures.  That debate is yet to happen in a conservative political climate where mainstream economic policies continue to privilege profit over publicly-funded social services.

It Takes a Video: Police Violence Against School Children

            The recent student-recorded video of a White male police officer slamming a Black female adolescent sitting in her school desk to the floor while her classmates and teachers looked on grabbed the nation’s attention about the unproductive presence of police in schools.  This past July Mother Jones magazine documented how police in schools (or by their Orwellian title, “School Resource Officers”) inflict horrendous and unnecessary injuries on young people. 

            This is not a new problem.  Ten years ago the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) issued a comprehensive report about this problem  (“Dismantling the School-to-Prison Pipeline”).  Similar to police violence dished out to unarmed civilians, cops in schools punish and arrest students of color at a disturbingly disproportionate rate –about which the American Civil Liberties Union issued warnings seven years ago.  Students of color on the average are disproportionately criminalized for the same behavior exhibited by their White peers.  

The rise of the carceral state since the Reagan and Clinton administrations mirrors the rise in the criminalization of normal youthful behavior/misbehavior – with lasting negative effects on life opportunities for arrested and incarcerated youth. 

            The numbers help tell the story.  In the past 40 years the rate of school suspensions and expulsions have doubled.  Diversity and Education documents that

“suspended or expelled students have 300% higher likelihood than their peers of having a direct experience with the juvenile justice system within 1 year… During the 2009–2010 academic year, California school administrators alone suspended 400,000 students.”

            A 2013 New York Times article – “With Police in Schools, More Children in Court” – observed how the presence of police in schools is associated with

“a surge in arrests or misdemeanor charges for essentially non-violent behavior ... that sends children into criminal courts.”

Once in the juvenile criminal justice system, as noted in an earlier commentary (“‘Cruel and Unusual Punishment’ of Incarcerated Youth”), young people often suffer human rights violations.

            Over the past four decades too many schools abandoned a focus on providing young people with counseling and on using other non-punitive methods to handle disciplinary complaints.  Instead, public schools adopted a police-state strategy of law-and-order, a practice mirrored in the larger society that has resulted in the U.S. globally having the highest percentage of its population incarcerated. 

           With this most recent nationally circulated video and the growing research on the unproductive presence in of police in schools, we may begin to see policies that lead to the removal of all police from schools except under exceptional circumstances.

The Master Narrative: No “Slaves,” Only “Workers” in Texas Schoolbooks

            An attentive 15-year old let his mother know that a required Texas social studies book claimed that people of African descent brought forcible to the Americas to labor for Whites were identified as “workers” rather than “slaves”  in a section devoted to “immigration.” Mom took to social media, Black Lives Matter picked up a video she posted, and McGraw Hill had to respond to their “mistake”:

 “We conducted a close review of the content and agree that our language in that caption did not adequately convey that Africans were both forced into migration and to labor against their will as slaves.”

This latest example of Texas miseducation – despite the review process – along with McGraw-Hill’s admission of inadequacy would not have surprised the late Harvard historian Nathan Huggins. In 1991 Professor Huggins wrote that

a “master narrative of American history” is founded on “a conspiracy of myth, history, and chauvinism . . . [that] could find no place at its center for racial slavery, or racial caste which followed Emancipation.”   

The power of the “master narrative” that Nathan Huggins pointed out nearly 25 years ago is defended vehemently today by Texas political dominant conservatives (and by similar forces in other states).  This imposition of a Texas master narrative continues to White-wash U.S. history, as mentioned in an earlier commentary (“A Texas Educational Approach to Racial Truth & Reconciliation”). 

The Texas Republican 2012 platform is quite clear about how to present history to young people:

 “We believe the current teaching of a multicultural curriculum is divisive.  We favor strengthening our common American identity and loyalty…”

Mentioning the inhumane treatment of slaves and the profits that were accrued for the nation’s economy apparently must be hidden from young minds in the name of a “common American identity.”

Meanwhile, the nearly 140,000 print copies of textbook that Texas did buy will continue to be used in the state’s 267 school districts – until mega-corporation McGraw-Hill gets around to it: “These changes will be…included in the program’s next print run.”  This is about money and conservative ideology, not about exposure to the nation’s actual story.

 

 

"Cruel and Unusual Punishment" of Incarcerated Youth

            California’s decision this month to reform the use of solitary confinement of prisoners brought further attention to the wide-spread use of this medieval method of incarceration.  The use of medieval dungeons in U.S. prisons consistently violates the 8th Amendment’s prohibition against “cruel and unusual punishment.”  Solitary confinement in 21st century prison-dungeons are by design a form of torture that leaves its victims – especially young people – socially and psychologically traumatized for life.

            Take the case of Kalief Browder who was imprisoned at the age of 16.  According to the New Yorker, Kalief

spent more than one thousand days on Rikers waiting for a trial that never happened. During that time, he endured about two years in solitary confinement, where he attempted to end his life several times.

Surveillance videos secured by New Yorker investigative reporter Jennifer Godderman vividly show “an officer assaulting [Kalief] and of a large group of inmates pummeling and kicking him.”

In 2013 Kalief Browder was released from jail when charges were dropped against him for supposedly stealing a backpack.  As publicity grew over his unjust imprisonment, there was an outpouring of support for him.  But Kalief never recovered from his time in the dungeon: This past June at age 22 Kalief committed suicide

Kalief Browder’s cruel treatment, however, is not unusual for U.S. jails and prisons. Unfortunately, his decision to commit suicide is not unusual either.  Solitary Watch reports that

Juveniles are 36 times more likely to commit suicide in an adult jail than a juvenile detention facility and 19 times more likely to kill themselves in isolation than in general population.

 The U.S. regularly violates international justice agreements that it has signed.  Diversity and Education describes medieval practices of degradation and torture the U.S. uses in its detention of adolescents, including:

  • Solitary confinement 21-24 hours a day despite known research on the negative effects for healthy psychological development
  • Life sentences without parole for juveniles – only nation in the world to do so
  •  Use of shackling as a punishment rather than as a restraint even when not convicted of a crime
  • Juvenile court “trials” without legal representation

With increased news attention to this medieval criminal justice justice system, maybe elected local, state, and federal official will take steps to stop the U.S. from being an international outlaw in its mistreatment of juveniles.  Simply following a 1990 United Nations resolution would be a good start.  In signing onto UN resolution "Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of Their Liberty," the U.S. in principle agreed that

All disciplinary measures constituting cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment shall be strictly prohibited, including corporal punishment, placement in a dark cell, closed or solitary confinement or any other punishment that may compromise the physical or mental health of the juvenile concerned.

Continuing attention to U.S. violations of juvenile human rights can be a start to shifting public opinion away from medieval torture techniques and toward more humane treatment and restorative justice for young people.

“Europe,” the Migration Crisis, and Multiculturalism

            As some migrants are hailing their arrival to Germany, I’m reminded of the statement by Germany’s popular conservative chancellor Angela Merkel and de facto leader of the European Union.  In 2013 when faced with an increase in immigrants, especially Muslims, Merkel reacted by declaring that “the multicultural concept…has failed, and failed utterly.”

            As we’ve seen in the cruel financial treatment – led by Germany’s chief central banker of Greece by the European Union bankers in putting Greece in a permanent state of financial servitude and now with the handling of waves of migrants, the fiction of “Europe” and European unity is unraveling.  We are reminded that national boundaries are a human invention for political reasons, not for the promotion of human rights.

           Going back centuries, the idea that Europe would be reserved as the headquarters for a Christian Empire ruled by people of a certain skin color continues to be challenged by the realities of our diverse and multicultural world.  Hopefully, the people of Europe will find common humanity with the dire circumstances that these thousands of migrants are facing.

A Texas Educational Approach to Racial Truth & Reconciliation

            A recent Gary Trudeau “Doonesbury” cartoon shows a befuddled social studies teacher claiming – in accordance with Texas social studies standards – that secession from the United States by the Confederate States of America was primarily about so-called “states’ rights” while slavery was down the list of reasons.  The clueless teacher then is confronted with a student who notes that in the Texas Declaration of Secession “the word ‘slave’ appears 18 times.” The student is subsequently scolded for using “outside sources.”

            In Diversity and Education – after examining the Texas Administrative Code’s social studies standards – I concluded that

The anxiety by social conservatives over ethnic studies and multiculturalism extends to interpretations of what should be included and excluded in the public school curriculum. Representative of this trend is how the state of Texas reworded its social studies standards to reassert common culture privileging of Christianity along with more favorable impressions of patriarchy, the Confederacy, capitalism, and the military.

Additionally, the Texas Educational Standards to which a generation of youth are being subjected represents

a backlash against Islam and immigrants of color and overtly mutes a history inclusive of slavery, political gains of women, racial discrimination, labor unions, indigenous histories, and excesses of capitalism.

            This rewriting of history to conform to a sanitized White Christian narrative is indicative of the challenge to Racial Truth and Reconciliation, not only in Texas but throughout nation.  But hope rests with small but significant acts of teacher resistance.  Kirk White, a middle school social studies teacher in Austin, explains:

Are there some things in there that don’t belong? Sure, but I hope teachers don’t buckle and interpret the language too narrowly.  If we have to talk more about our so-called 'Christian nation' in class, then let’s talk about it— the good and the bad. A good teacher will know how to take advantage of this situation.

But it remains unclear how the world views of young people will be affected when exposed not to teachers like Kirk White but to such teachers as the one lampooned by cartoonist/satirist Gary Trudeau.

Time for a U.S. Truth and Reconciliation Commission

     A fitting recognition for the first anniversary of the killing of an unarmed African American adolescent by a white Ferguson police officer would be the convening of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission.  It may be the time that we – the people and our  public officials  face the sordid history of the nation that has allowed the continuation of racial oppression in support of various forms of White nationalism.  The first step to radically change continuing forms of institutional racism will likely require some sort of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

       A Richmond Times-Dispatch editorial declared in July that “Virginia must lead on racial truth and reconciliation”: 

      After the [Civil] war, Virginia and its fellow states in the Confederacy avoided an accounting.  The gentleman’s code apparently deterred integrity. Accounting has not occurred; the half remains untold.  The United States has not authorized a truth and reconciliation commission.  Although blurred, the color line persists.  Barack Obama’s election did not translate into a post-racial society.  White America seems to have believed that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 erased history . Several centuries of slavery followed by segregation and racism, de jure and de facto, apparently left no trace.  The attitudes insulted those who made history and those who lived it.  Nothing could be less conservative than a reluctance to confront the past. 
      This is Virginia’s opportunity….  The slaveocracy took root in the Chesapeake. Richmond served as capital of the Confederacy…   Virginia is the ideal state to take the lead in addressing truth and reconciliation, in other words. 

      The controversy over displaying and the eventual lowering of the Confederate flag in South Carolina served as an example of the kind of soul-searching and action that is neededbut much more is required on broader and deeper scale.  

     The convening of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission is needed not just in Virginia, but in settings throughout the United States.  Such an accounting of racial wrongs against people of color can be an important start to dismantling economic and political racial inequities that continue in housing, jobs, and education.

 

Note to Cincinnati Prosecutor: Murders by Police Do Happen in the U.S.

            As we approach the one-year anniversary of the death of unarmed Michael Brown by a Ferguson police officer, a slow but discernable shift is occurring among some public officials in response to the heightened public awareness brought on by the Black Lives Matter social justice movement.  This shift is seen in the legal response of the killing of unarmed African American Samuel Debose in Cincinnati.  The point-blank murder of another unarmed African American by a police officer is unusual in only that a prosecutor choose to do his job and charge the cop for murder

            The prosecutor in this case, however, appears shocked at this incident which is actually part of a larger pattern of racial oppression carried out under the watch of prosecutors across the nations.  He claims,

This doesn’t happen in the United States, OK? This might happen in Afghanistan. People don’t get shot for a traffic stop.

Too many examples to counter this assertion of American exceptionalism, but isn’t the prosecutor aware of his own state news from just a couple months ago when Cleveland police officers were acquitted for the fatal shootings of two unarmed African Americans sitting in their own car – with 137 shots?  The prosecutor in that case who unsuccessfully tried the Cleveland cops compared the police defendants to an "organized crime syndicate" for their lack of cooperation in the case in their practice of engaging in the unwritten Blue-Wall-of-Silence.

In Urban America and its Police: From the Postcolonial Era through the Turbulent 1960s, Harlan Hahn and Judson Jefferies provide insights on the policing of Black actions from private slave patrols to the rise of modern urban police departments:

The primary objective of white voters and politicians was to prevent both slave and free black persons from disrupting a segregated social structure, and the police served as an essential instrument of that policy.

This historical pattern that has provided police impunity in their use of violence on Blacks continues, but through the unceasing Black Lives Matter movement we are witnessing a small but significant disruptions to this system. 

Sandra Bland and Smoking While Black

Reflecting on Sandra Bland’s arrest and eventual death while incarcerated in a Texas county jail with its own legacy of White supremacy is an important reminder that historical patterns continue to inform 21st century racial disparities.   What was her “crime”?  Apparently not giving a White police officer the deference required by White custom for Black people since the colonial era and the founding of the United States.

Like the Black youth Emmett Till who in 1955 was visiting relatives in Mississippi and was mutilated and murdered for reportedly flirting with a White woman, Sandra Bland was also from Chicago and refused to follow the deferential custom imposed by Whites on Blacks. 

Like other African Americans who have been despised by Whites and arrested for nearly any concocted reason, Sandra Bland – an educated women on her way to a new job at a local university from which she herself had graduated – was simply asserting her knowledge of her civil rights when she was pulled over for a lane violation while she smoked a cigarette

Although no arrest had been made, the existence of the cigarette so inflamed the White policeman that he threatened Bland while pointing his Taser at her: “I will light you up!”

This scene reminded me of  Douglas Blackmons description in Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II of a 1908 world that could result in the arrest of a Black man – or something worse:

So the term for those African American men deemed specifically worthless for their defiant attitudes was ‘cigarette dudes.’ These men were cocky in comparison to their peers; they had learned reading and writing, and sometimes worked and sometimes slouched on street corners. Sometimes cigarettes sat akilter on their lips… Instead of threadbare overalls, the uniform of all blacks and poor country whites for as long as anyone could remember, these men might wear trousers and jackets, even neckties… On their faces an air of defiant confidence, visages of the men they knew they should been allowed to be…

“According to almost every white, these cigarette dudes were the source of every trouble in the South… To be rid of them forever, by whatever means could accomplish that goal, was something nearly every white man in the South…had openly called for and worked toward…”

Contrary to assertions of a post-racial America, overcoming 400 years of racial oppression will take the continuation and expansion of the social justice movement Black Lives Matter.